Closure has no direct equivalent in my native language Java so it took a great deal of reading and experimentation for me to come to grips with this concept. The simplest description I can give is this.
In a closure a variable declared in an outer function is visible to an inner function even if the inner function’s lifecycle is longer than that of the outer function.
Here is an example using the Apache Cordova
In this example the startWatch() function declares a variable previousReading and sets its x, y and z members to null. The three values will be used to represent acceleration in meters per second squared. The function then calls navigator.accelerometer.watchAcceleration(), passing in an anonymous callback for success. The anonymous callback defined on line 7 in the source code will be called at a rate of once every 500ms and it will compare the current acceleration with previousReading then update previousReading with the current acceleration.
The code is relatively straightforward except for one important detail previousReading was declared in the scope of the outer function startWatch. But the anonymous inner function (on line 7) will be called repeatedly even after the outer function is out of scope! What happens here is that the inner function keeps a reference to any values in the outer scope that it will need when it is invoked.
For those of you who are Java programmers, don’t think you are immune from this discussion. Closures are on the proposed feature list for JDK 8.